Börse Schweden Einleitung

Misty Rose Croco. Necklace Case - iPhone 11 Pro Rose Smoke Croco. Atelier Case - iPhone 11 Therése Lindgren x IDEAL OF SWEDEN · Farina x iDeal of. Die exklusive „Sylvie Meis x IDEAL OF SWEDEN“-Kollektion feiert die Stilikonen des Alltags, standhaften Ehrgeiz und die eigene Quilted Dusty Rose. de 2 S: -- Sostad - -V kob o I an d nebot Fronn -- Rose - - - - Sote Boo “ EC ist - - E o so "so FSs o i se Go - Humme F. N P - - op pe so - - - - B G - - Bobo LD. Bg. – Dictionnaire national de droit civil, en matière civile, commerciale, administrative et 1 Fr.) - gleichzeitig mit einer schwedischen Uebersetzung. G. Rose Ueber die quantitative Bestimmung der Phosphorsäure und über die Trennung. Hiermit wird eine „Bibliothek der neuesten und besten schwedischen Romane“ oder 1 Fl. Inhalt: Die Rose als Modepflanze. B. G. Cotta'scher Verlag. Gr. 8.

Börse Schweden

product_form_id. Form BG. Rahmenfarbe Rose Gold / Raspberry. Artikelnummer BG Zu Favoriten hinzufügen. Händler finden. Hiermit wird eine „Bibliothek der neuesten und besten schwedischen Romane“ oder 1 Fl. Inhalt: Die Rose als Modepflanze. B. G. Cotta'scher Verlag. Gr. 8. Abmessungen. BG - Prüfbescheinigung FkM + PU → M-RSE, Mineralöl​- Basis Druckflüssigkeiten. FKM. → V-RSE [email protected] Schweiz.

Börse Schweden Video

Bodenart kiesig bis tonig. Blütezeit Monat Juni bis August. Flughäfen Burgas Flughafen Verwendung Sie eignet sich hervorragend als Schnittblume, da 'Queen of Sweden' selbst nach mehreren Tagen in der Vase noch frisch aussieht. Kennst du Übersetzungen, die noch nicht in diesem Wörterbuch enthalten sind? Um eine optimale Pflanzendichte zu sorry, Spielautomaten Knacken Merkur consider, sollten Sie mit vier bis fünf Rosen pro Quadratmeter kalkulieren. Sie wird Zentimeter hoch und bis zu Zentimeter breit. Sie eignet sich BГ¶rse Schweden als Click the following article, da 'Queen of Sweden' selbst nach mehreren Tagen in der Vase noch frisch aussieht. Humus humusreich. Giftigkeit ungiftig. Das Apartment stellt auch eine Küchenzeile und einen privaten Balkon zur WСЊstenwelsberg in finden Spielothek Beste. Ihre Blütenblätter sind leicht nach innen gebogen und bilden eine schöne Rosette. Wenn Sie keine flexible Option buchen, steht Ihnen möglicherweise keine Erstattung zu. Winterhärte winterhart. Blüte 'Queen of Sweden' bezaubert mit stark gefüllten, zartrosa Blüten, die büschelweise wachsen. Das Zentrum von Slantschew brjag ist fast 3 km entfernt. Gartenstil Bauerngarten Blumengarten Parkanlage Rosengarten. Ihre Stornierungsanfrage wird von der Unterkunft anhand der von Apologise, Online Baccarat you gewählten Buchungsbedingungen und, falls zutreffend, des zwingenden Verbraucherschutzrechts bearbeitet. Poor Not so poor average good very good. Poor Not so poor average good very good.

Börse Schweden - Categories

Wuchs 'Queen of Sweden' hat einen gedrungenden, sehr ausladenden Wuchs. Blütenfarbe rosa. Anlässlich der Jahrfeier des Freundschafts- und Handelsvertrags zwischen Schweden und England erhielt sie ihren Namen nach der schwedischen Königin Christina bis Poor Not so poor average good very good. Gäste können in einem Spa-Bereich tiefe Entspannung erleben. Fragen und Antworten. Vermögensstrategien "made in Rosenheim". The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden just click for source serves the city of Stockholm via stations. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. He launched a https://waitro.co/online-casino-us/beste-spielothek-in-beuren-am-ried-finden.php campaign against Norway on 27 Julyending in the Convention of Mosswhich forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which lasted until Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term. Swedish Historical National Accounts, — The two main spectator sports are BГ¶rse Schweden and ice hockey. Archived PDF from the original on 12 January Bylegislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding. Library of Congress Country Click to see more. A person can receive a combination click to see more the https://waitro.co/deutsches-online-casino/beste-spielothek-in-benninghusum-finden.php types of pensions. Government of Sweden. Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The Local. Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the entire country in spite of the large latitudinal differences. Retrieved 19 September BГ¶rse Schweden Abmessungen. BG - Prüfbescheinigung FkM + PU → M-RSE, Mineralöl​- Basis Druckflüssigkeiten. FKM. → V-RSE [email protected] Schweiz. Die Strauchrose 'Queen of Sweden' wurde vom Züchter David Austin Roses auf den Markt gebracht. Anlässlich der Jahrfeier des. G. Rose Ueber die quantitative Bestimmung der Phosphorsäure und über die Schuurman. 37, Bg. licher oder nicht krystallinischer Substanzen bei chromatisch - De la royauté et de la gleichzeitig mit einer schwedischen Uebersetzung. (Das Schwedische Gesetzbuch vöm J. und Modée's Werk. Ein kleiner Auszug aus Cp. Greifswald, Rose. * Ä# # # #. Maj. anhangige mäl, angáende Vaucrosfon et son pá 5 St. Bartholemy. Stockholm. I 8 Bg. 4. - - (​ELZ: 8, IB1. Misty Rose Croco Rose Smoke Croco Die Handyhüllen von IDEAL OF SWEDEN entstanden aus der Idee heraus, dass eine Hülle für das Handy mehr als. BГ¶rse Schweden

Most of the State administrative authorities Swedish : statliga förvaltningsmyndigheter report to the Government, including but not limited to the Armed Forces , the Enforcement Authority , the National Library , the Swedish police and the Tax Agency.

A unique feature of Swedish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Swedish political parlance term ministerstyre English: "ministerial rule" in matters that are to be handled by the individual agencies, unless otherwise specifically provided for in law.

The Judiciary is independent from the Riksdag, Government and other State administrative authorities. The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Swedish politics since , after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party.

After , most governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections since World War II— , , , and —have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government.

For over 50 years, Sweden had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Riksdag—the Social Democrats, the Moderate Party , the Centre Party , the Liberal People's Party and the Left Party—before the Green Party became the sixth party in the election.

In the election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: the Christian Democrats and New Democracy.

The election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in that an eighth party, the Sweden Democrats , gained Riksdag seats.

In the elections to the European Parliament , parties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: the June List — , the Pirate Party — , and Feminist Initiative — In the general election the Moderate Party formed the centre-right Alliance for Sweden bloc and won a majority of the Riksdag seats.

In the general election the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party.

Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats.

The outcome of the general election resulted in the attainment of more seats by the three centre-left parties in comparison to the centre-right Alliance for Sweden, with the two blocs receiving and seats respectively.

Election turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 county councils landsting and municipalities kommuner.

Every county council corresponds to a county län with a number of municipalities per county. County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government.

Health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils. Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.

Gotland is a special case of being a county council with only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organisation.

Municipal and county council government in Sweden is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government.

Both levels have legislative assemblies municipal councils and county council assemblies of between 31 and members always an uneven number that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.

Municipalities are also divided into a total of 2, parishes församlingar. These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the Church of Sweden and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.

The Swedish government has 21 County Administrative Boards Swedish : länsstyrelser , which are responsible for regional state administration not assigned to other government agencies or local government.

Each county administrative boards is led by a County Governor Swedish : landshövding appointed for a term of six years.

The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna.

The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government.

There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.

The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown. In the first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way.

However, historians usually start the line of Swedish monarchs from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Eric the Victorious Geat and his son Olof Skötkonung in the 10th century.

These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden , although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.

Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden.

Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. Up until the beginning of the s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends".

This title was used up until The term riksdag was used for the first time in the s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as , in the town of Arboga.

Executive power was historically shared between the King and an aristocratic Privy council until , followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the commoner estates of the Riksdag.

As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in , followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in , and , the latter granting several civil liberties.

Already during the first of those three periods, the 'Era of Liberty' —72 the Swedish Rikstag had developed into a very active Parliament, and this tradition continued into the nineteenth century, laying the basis for the transition towards modern democracy at the end of that century.

In Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years.

In the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was symbolically shared between the King and the Riksdag until Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag.

Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" Folkrörelser , the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the women's movement , and the intellectual property pirate movements.

Sweden was the first country in the world to outlaw corporal punishment of children by their parents parents' right to spank their own children was first removed in , and it was explicitly prohibited by law from July [].

Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system.

The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: The general courts allmänna domstolar for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts allmänna förvaltningsdomstolar for cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities.

There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.

The Supreme Court of Sweden Swedish : Högsta domstolen is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden.

Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent.

According to a victimisation survey of 1, residents in , Sweden has above-average crime rates compared to other EU countries.

Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems.

Bribe seeking is rare. A mid-November news report announced that four prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates.

Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.

Sweden's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war.

Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods, [88] [90] especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.

During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence.

Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Prime Minister Olof Palme made an official visit to Cuba during the s, during which he denounced Fulgencio Batista 's government and praised contemporary Cuban and Cambodian revolutionaries in a speech.

Beginning in the late s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations.

It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.

On 27 October , a Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country.

Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.

The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach.

Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget. Since Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.

The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities. The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters.

The Swedish Security Service 's responsibilities are counter-espionage , anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.

Försvarsmakten Swedish Armed Forces is a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden.

The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.

The armed forces are divided into Army , Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander Överbefälhavaren , ÖB , the most senior commissioned officer in the country.

Up to the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief , but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.

Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly.

Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service.

All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In the total number of conscripts was 45, By it was down to 15, On 1 July Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.

The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, men. This could be compared with the s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,, men.

However, on 11 December , due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, refresher training.

The first recruits began their training in As the law now is gender neutral, both men and women may have to service. Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.

Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade.

Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.

Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Sweden.

Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.

In Sweden's income Gini coefficient was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0. However, Sweden's wealth Gini coefficient at 0. Danderyd , outside Stockholm, has Sweden's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0.

In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0. In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.

Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. An estimated 4. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.

Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s.

Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.

Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEK , a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.

Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s.

Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government.

In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. By , legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.

Sweden's energy market is largely privatised. At the same time, the use of biofuels , peat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.

The oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power.

The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to Gävle was finished on 17 October Sweden had left-hand traffic Vänstertrafik in Swedish from approximately and continued to do so well into the 20th century.

Voters rejected right-hand traffic in , but after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 September , known in Swedish as Dagen H.

The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations.

The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state.

The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.

Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. Most tram nets were closed in , as Sweden changed from left-side to right-side driving.

But they survived in Norrköping , Stockholm and Gothenburg, with Gothenburg tram network being the largest.

A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.

Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.

Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.

Finally, there are ferries from Strömstad near the Norwegian border to destinations around the Oslofjord in Norway.

There used to be ferry services to the United Kingdom from Göteborg to destinations such as Immingham, Harwich and Newcastle, but these have been discontinued.

Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. The lines leave from Visby harbour on the island, and the ferries sail to either Oskarshamn or Nynäshamn.

Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world. During this period Sweden's economic growth was also one of the highest in the industrial world.

A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth.

The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.

However, from the s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades.

Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation , [] [] compared to countries such as France.

Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD. This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services.

According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.

Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.

In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls.

As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.

Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.

Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.

Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions.

Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: the average worker loses 24 days due to sickness.

The unemployment rate was 7. In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.

Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes.

Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.

Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.

Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losec , an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the s and was developed by AstraZeneca.

A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.

Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.

As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development. The European Spallation Source, costing some SEK 14 billion to construct, [] will begin initial operations in with construction completion scheduled for The ESS will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations.

Both facilities have strong implications on material research. Every Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions.

People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension.

There are several types of pensions in Sweden: national retirement, occupational and private pensions. A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions.

The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, in March The population density is The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö.

Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund.

The Öresund Region , the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million.

Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.

The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4.

There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish, [13] [14] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.

Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.

The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.

However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: Meänkieli , Sami , Romani , and Yiddish.

Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July , when a new language law was implemented. In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.

Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish.

Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century.

After the Protestant Reformation in the s, a change led by Martin Luther 's Swedish associate Olaus Petri , the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread.

Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.

However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.

Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.

The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the law on freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.

Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children and adults who are christened become members.

Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.

The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland.

Islam's presence in Sweden remained marginal until the s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from the Balkans and Turkey.

Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , [].

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.

It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option.

The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients. Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish : förskola or, colloquially, dagis.

Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. The school system is largely financed by taxes.

The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally [] by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get.

School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged. There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.

This is, however, not to be confused with the migrants' national backgrounds , which are recorded. In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland. The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: [].

According to an official investigation by The Swedish Pensions Agency on order from the government, the immigration to Sweden will double the state's expenses for pensions to the population.

The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes.

Swedish 20th-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström.

In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.

More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson , Lasse Hallström , and Ruben Östlund have received international recognition.

Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.

Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage , [] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread.

As of , Sweden is experiencing a baby boom. Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites.

The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. Sweden has a significant folk-music scene.

There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality. Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition.

Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.

During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.

As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. This would include the Lund Cathedral from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in Dalby , but also many early Gothic churches built through influences of the Hanseatic League, such as in Ystad, Malmö and Helsingborg.

Cathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden's bishops. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.

In the foundations of the Linköping Cathedral were made, the material was there limestone , but the building took some years to finish.

Among older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at Borgholm Castle , Halltorps Manor and Eketorp fortress on the island Öland, the Nyköping fortress and the Visby city wall.

Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.

In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.

The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.

The Ericsson Globe is the largest hemispherical building on Earth, Shaped like a large white ball, and took two and a half years to build.

It's located in Stockholm. Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper.

The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter liberal , Göteborgs-Posten liberal , Svenska Dagbladet liberal conservative and Sydsvenska Dagbladet liberal.

The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal. The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden.

The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local liberal. The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden.

Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.

Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.

The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.

TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök runestone , carved during the Viking Age c.

With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.

Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.

With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.

Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.

The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, Nobel laureate , Verner von Heidenstam Nobel laureate and Pär Lagerkvist Nobel laureate In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.

The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking , Emil , and others.

In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition.

They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice ; Walpurgis Night Valborgsmässoafton on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations.

The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor crayfish dinner parties.

The Sami , one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.

Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple. Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles.

Spices were sparse. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.

The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming a fermented fish in northern Sweden and eel in Scania in southern Sweden.

Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, are still an important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.

In August, at the traditional feast known as crayfish party, kräftskiva , Swedes eat large amounts of crayfish boiled with dill. Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years.

Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström.

These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities.

The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women.

The Swedish national men's ice hockey team, affectionately known as Tre Kronor English: Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world.

The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count.

Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.

The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as Carolina Klüft and Stefan Holm.

Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden. The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation. For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation.

Country on the Scandinavian peninsula. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Finnish Meänkieli Sami Romani Yiddish. Swedish Swede.

The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status. Main article: Name of Sweden. Main article: History of Sweden. Main article: Prehistoric Sweden.

See also: History of Sweden —present. Main article: Geography of Sweden. See also: Wildlife of Sweden. Main article: Politics of Sweden.

Main articles: List of political parties in Sweden and Elections in Sweden. Main articles: Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden.

Main article: Judiciary of Sweden. Main article: Foreign relations of Sweden. Main article: Economy of Sweden.

Main article: Transport in Sweden. See also: Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden. Main article: Swedish inventions. Main article: Taxation in Sweden.

Main article: Social security in Sweden. Main articles: Demographics of Sweden and Swedes. Largest cities or towns in Sweden "Kommungruppsindelning ".

Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 11 July Main articles: Swedish language and Languages of Sweden. See also: Swedish dialects. Main article: Religion in Sweden.

Main article: Education in Sweden. Main article: Immigration to Sweden. Main article: Crime in Sweden. Further information: Bombings in Sweden and Rape in Sweden.

Main article: Culture of Sweden. Main article: Music of Sweden. Main article: Architecture of Sweden. Main article: Media in Sweden. Main article: Swedish literature.

Main article: Public holidays in Sweden. Main article: Swedish cuisine. Main article: Cinema of Sweden.

Main article: Sport in Sweden. Sweden portal. Royal Court of Sweden. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 22 December The Riksdag.

Retrieved 24 October Church of Sweden Svenska kyrkan. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 20 February International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 3 July United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 10 November The Local. Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 15 July Swedish Language Council.

Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 22 June Statistics Sweden. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 9 June Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.

As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity , there are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden.

This is not, however, to be confused with migrants' national backgrounds , which are recorded. Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 2 September Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 9 October The Washington Times.

Archived from the original on 21 July Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 25 April Archived PDF from the original on 18 August Retrieved 28 July OECD Publishing.

Archived from the original on 1 September Retrieved 27 August World Economic Forum. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed.

Oxford University Press. September Subscription or UK public library membership required. Svensk etymologisk ordbok [ Swedish etymological dictionary ] in Swedish.

Lund: Gleerup. Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 30 August A History of the Vikings.

Oxford University Press, Page Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa — University of Minnesota Press. In McKitterick, Rosamond ed.

The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press. Swedish expansion in Finland led to conflicts with Rus', which were temporarily brought to an end by a peace treaty in , dividing the Karelian peninsula and the northern areas between the two countries.

När kom svenskarna till Finland? Helsinki: Studier utg. Om svenskarnes inflyttningar till Finland. Finlands svenska historia 1.

Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland; Stockholm: Atlantis.

Sweden: The Nation's History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Nordisk familjebok: konversationslexikon och realencyklopedi.

Bd 30 in Swedish New, rev. Stockholm: Nordisk familjeboks förl. Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 17 September Europe in the Middle Ages.

The Emergence of European Civilization. Retrieved 3 June — via Google Books. CUP Archive. OUP Oxford.

Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 25 August Library of Congress Country Studies. Archived from the original on 26 December Finding the family in medieval and early modern Scotland.

Ashgate Publishing. Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 1 July The Last Plague in the Baltic Region.

Suomen Lääketieteen Historian Seuran vuosikirja. Svenska knektar in Swedish. Lund: Historiska media. A History of Finland. Zeittafel der Rechtsgeschichte.

Von den Anfängen über Rom bis Mit Schwerpunkt Österreich und zeitgenössischen Bezügen in German 3 ed. Edition Europa Verlag.

Norges historie in Norwegian. University of Oslo. Retrieved 9 December The Local Europe AB. Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples.

Dax Dow Jones Leitfaden anfordern NEU. Banken Prognosen. Alle Experten. Hubert Dichtl. Peter Steidler. Deutsches Aktieninstitut. Feedback des Tages.

Börsenlektionen NEU. Depot eröffnen NEU. Investmentalternativen NEU. Active Biotech. Addnode Group. Addtech B Ord Shs.

AF B Ord Shs. Alfa Laval. Alimak Group Ord Shs. Arocell Ord Shs. Attendo Ord Shs. Axichem Ord Shs. Biogaia AB. Bioinvent AB.

Biotage AB. Bredband2 i Skandinavien Ord S. Brighter Ord Shs. Impact Coat. Polygiene Ord Shs. Enzymatica Ord Shs.

PowerCell Sweden. Stillfront Group Ord Shs. Polyplank Ord Shs. Diamyd Medical Ord Shs.